By Aviva Surugeon

Is the consumer always right?  Maybe.  But under the five states that have enacted comprehensive privacy laws, consumers have slightly varying ways in which to invoke these afforded rights.  The California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA) (which amends and expands the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA)), Colorado Privacy Act (CPA), Connecticut Data Privacy Act (CTDPA), Utah Consumer Privacy Act (UCPA), and Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (VCDPA) will all take effect in 2023.  Each will provide enumerated consumer data privacy rights.  In Part I of this series, we outlined the general differences among the U.S. comprehensive data privacy laws that have been adopted.  Here, we dig into how each State’s law gives individuals more control over their personal information by providing certain consumer rights and what key distinctions covered businesses should be aware of concerning the varying States’ laws.


Notwithstanding a few deviations, the five comprehensive consumer privacy laws provide consumers with the following rights: 

Right to confirm personal data are being processed. 

Right to access their personal data.

Right to correct inaccuracies in their personal data, taking into account the nature of the personal data and the purposes of the processing of the consumer’s personal data.

Right to delete personal data provided by, or obtained about, the consumer.  However, certain exceptions enumerated in each State’s law may inhibit the consumer’s right to deletion.

Right to data portability where consumers have the right to obtain a copy of the consumer’s personal data processed by the controller in a readily usable format that allows the consumer to transmit the data to another controller without hindrance.

Right to opt out of the processing of the personal data for the purposes of: 

  • targeted advertising;  
  • the sale of personal data; or
  • profiling in furtherance of solely automated decisions that produce legal or similarly significant effects concerning the consumer.


While providing similar consumer rights, the five different privacy laws feature notable differences.  For example, the CPRA and UCPA afford deletion rights that are limited to personal information collected from the consumer.  However, under the VCDPA, CPA, and CTDPA, any personal information collected about the consumer is in scope of the deletion right.  

Also, the UCPA stands alone in not providing a right for consumers to appeal denials of requests to exercise their rights, correct personal data inaccuracies, or opt out of profiling.  Notably, under the VCDPA and UCPA, the right to data portability is limited to consumer-provided data.  However, CTDPA’s approach is more like the CPA, allowing consumers to obtain a copy of the data a controller has processed about them regardless of how the controller acquired it.  

The most notable differences surround the collection and processing of sensitive personal information.  Under the CPRA, where a business collects or processes sensitive personal information for the purpose of inferring characteristics about a consumer, it will either need to self-restrict its use of that information to certain purposes set forth in the CPRA, or it will need to provide consumers with a notice and the right to limit the business’s use of the information to the statutory purpose.  However, under the VCDPA, CPA, and CTDPA, sensitive personal information is defined differently, requiring controllers to obtain consumer opt-in consent and conduct a data processing assessment before processing the information.  The UCPA does not require consumer consent for processing sensitive data, and only requires that businesses provide notice and an opportunity to opt out of the use of sensitive data.

In addition to consumer rights, each State’s law requires that organizations provide privacy notices regarding the categories and processing of consumers’ personal data.  But the CPRA is the only law requiring notice upon collection of data.  Further, all five privacy laws require that the privacy notices include the categories of data, the purpose of processing the consumer’s data, how the consumer can exercise their rights, and what data are shared with third parties and the types of third parties with whom the data are shared.  However, the CPRA notice requirements include compliance with the rights to opt out of the sale of personal information or sale of personal information for targeted advertising, including placement of a “Do Not Sell or Share My Personal Information” link on the homepage of a company’s website.  Under the CTDPA, controllers are required to provide clear and conspicuous links on their websites that give consumers a choice to opt out of certain types of processing.  Beginning January 1, 2025, however, controllers must recognize universal opt-out preference signals indicating a consumer’s intent to opt out of targeted advertising and sales, which will trump any conflicting controller-specific privacy setting.  The CPA similarly mandates recognition of universal opt-out signals, beginning July 1, 2024.  But unlike CPA, the CTDPA does not require controllers to authenticate opt-out requests, which in theory, will make it easier for consumers to opt out.

Additionally, the CPRA includes the concept of “sharing,” which focuses on whether third parties use personal information for cross-context behavioral advertising, rather than on whether there is monetary or other valuable consideration for the disclosure – i.e., “selling.”  Under the CPRA, “sharing” data involves the disclosure, transfer, or other communication of personal information to third parties for purposes of advertising that is targeted based on a consumer’s activities on third-party and distinctly branded digital platforms.  Also of note, while the CPRA’s provisions do not take full effect until January 1, 2023, under the CPRA, the calendar year of 2022 is treated as a lookback period.  This means that any personal data collected during 2022 is subject to the terms of the CPRA starting in 2023.

The chart below provides a handy comparison of the key consumer rights of each state’s law:


As 2023 quickly approaches, organizations need to be mindful of these nuanced differences in consumer rights afforded under each of the five privacy laws.  Ultimately, organizations should be wary of a one-size-fits-all method in perfecting compliance.  Redgrave LLP will continue to monitor the changing landscape of U.S. data privacy legislation and is available to consult and assist in developing and deploying successful information governance and privacy policies and practices.  

For assistance with or additional information on this topic, please contact Martin Tully at

The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and not necessarily those of Redgrave LLP or its clients.

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